MODERN FARMING TECHNIQUES
Farming Techniques. This explains what crop farmer should do to make their farming a rewarding occupation? They have to change from the primitive way of farming to the modern way. This modern method of farming is called the scientific technique or method. Here are some of these modern crop farming techniques.
SOME MODERN CROP FARMING TECHNIQUES
- Soil Test: Modern crop farmers today do soil test to find the type of soil and the best crop to be planted on it.
- Choice of crop: crop farmer do not plant their crops any how again. They ensure that crop and soil match so as to have very good harvest.
- Land preparation: land preparation is very important. There is no bush burning in scientific farming. Organic materials are buried, not burnt, to enrich farm land.
- Farming on Slopes: Contour ridges with cross-bars make slopes very productive farm land today.
- Flood Plains: Flood plains are no longer dreaded and abandoned. They are cultivated with high pride through the use of early-matures.
- Approved Planting Distance: Today, crop farmers maintain approved planting distances to ensure better crop performance.
- Checking Erosion & Leaching: Erosion menace is checked by making ridges and cross-bars. But leaching is checked by mulching.
- Use of Fertilizer: Remember that fertilizer is anything added to the soil to increase soil fertility. Today, crop farmers rely much on the use of fertilizers as a means of making even barren lands productive.
- Use of Cover Crops: Cover crops, such as macuna-beans, are planted in fallow areas to avoid loss of moisture through evaporation. Cover crops also enrich farm lands if they are buried when tilling the soil (in preparation for farming).
Benefits of Using Modern Farming Techniques
Every fruitful venture yields good result so also in modern farming methods.
These good result are known as advantages. Therefore, farmer who uses modern farming techniques have many advantages. Here are some of these good results:
Advantages of Using Modern Farming Techniques
- Resistance to Crop Diseases: When modern farming methods are used, crops are strong, healthy able to resist crop diseases.
- Again, modern farming techniques gives rise to better crop performance.
- Also, the chances of crop survival are very high where modern farming techniques are used.
- Moreover, modern farming techniques promote big crop yield resulting from the use of modern farming techniques.
- Farmers with very large harvest have a very big surplus over what they keep for feeding and what they set aside for replanting. The sales of the big surplus fetches (i.e brings) higher revenue (ie income).
Types of Germination
There are two maim types of germination. These are (a) Apogeal germination and (b) Hypogeal germination.
In an Epigealttype of germination, the cotyledons (ie fleshy food stores) are carried above the ground.
Here, during germination, the cotyledons remain underground. This happens in citrus trees e.g Orange and Lemon seeds.
How to Improve Soil Fertility
There are many things which farmers can do to improve soil fertility. These are some of them:
- Check erosion on the farmland by making ridges and cross-bars.
- Stop over cropping (ie do not grow many crops on a given piece of land).
- Stop over grazing
- Mulch the garden or farm to check leaching.
- Improve upon your farming methods by adopting scientific farming techniques. One of these is by application of manure (such as compost) what is compost?.
Compost is a kind of manure. It is used to make the soil fertile for plants to grow.
Why we need Compost:
- Many parts of the surface of the earth are not good for plants to grow well. They do not have enough plant food. Therefore to make such portion rich in plant food, we have to add manure called COMPOST.
Application of fertilizer
Note: Fertilizer is a kind of Chemicals manure. It is an industrial product. Learn to use it.
- GREEN MANURE: Green manure is obtained by BURING a growing crops in the soil. Such crops are cultivated as ASH CROPS between the main cash crops in our farms. The method is good in place where the dry season is moist and mild enough. It is to prevent the crop from competing with the main cash crops for available water .green manure is very good because it is very rich in organic materials which enrich the soil.
- COMPOST: Compost is the produced by farmers who do MIXED FARMING (i.e the raising of livestock’s and growing of crops at the same time). Farmyard manure is a combination of either a BEDDING of grass saw-dust with the faces, urine, and other waste product of demotic animals.
- FERTILIZERS: Fertilizer are also known as inorganic manures. They are chemicals substance in powdered form from factories. They are added to the soil where important minerals such as nitrates, potassium, phosphates etc. are lacking.
Use of nursery for Germinating seeds.
Wise farmers buy their seedling from specialists who herminate seeds in Nursery farms. They have good reasons for doing this. In spite of this some farmers in rural areas choose to germinate their seeds direct in their own small fatrms. But Nursery farms are very good. These are some of the farms. But nursery farms are very good .these are some of the good result of using Nursery farms for germinating seeds.
Using nursery farms
1 Nursery farms are experimental farms. Here bad seeds die while good seeds germinate.
- Farmers are sure of buying goods seedling from nursery farms.
- Nursery farms offer a better option of buying seedling instead of seeds.
- Use of nursery for germinating seeds provides a good way of selecting healthy seedling rather than weak ones.
- 5. There is much saving in term of cost by using nursey.
- Yam plot
- Cassava plot
- Vegetable plot
- Banana plot
- Cocoa plot
- Rubber plot
- Maize plot
- Oil-palm plot
- Rice plot
- Plantain plot
- Groundnut plot
In agriculture, a plot is piece of farm land (big or small) set aside for the cultivation of only one crop.
If a plot is used for the cultivation of two or more crops at a time, then the owner is doing mixed cropping.